Duce: The Contradictions of Power
The Political Leadership of Benito Mussolini
A compelling reinterpretation of the authority and ideology of the much-mythologised Mussolini, weighing his successes and failings in government.
Eighty years after the fall of Benito Mussolini, controversy remains about what his dictatorship represented. This reflects the different sides to the Duce’s leadership: while adept at nurturing and enforcing his personal political power, Mussolini’s lack of insight into the requirements of governance prevented him from converting this power into influence to achieve his goals. His efforts to maintain the support of Italy’s conservative elites—economic, social and political—also created tensions with his radical Fascist ambitions, diminishing the momentum behind his regime.
Mussolini is frequently portrayed as a charismatic leader, but his rule was secured principally by coercion, violence and a ‘spoils system’. Nonetheless, his personality cult had significant popular appeal, even if based upon a political myth. This enabled him to consolidate his position and to dominate his Fascist colleagues—but at a price of over-centralised, dysfunctional decision-making.
In this book, the first comprehensive English-language study of Mussolini in nearly two decades, Peter J. Williamson brings to life the contradictions within the Duce’s leadership. Using a wide range of sources, Williamson reveals how these conflicts impeded the dictator’s ambitions, leaving him increasingly frustrated, all while most Italians endured the severe privations of both failure and Fascism.
‘Duce is a book of fascinating ambition and timeliness. Williamson weaves together snippets of important historical information into an engaging narrative, with a punchy and incisive style. A nuanced and well written argument.’ — Aristotle Kallis, Professor of Modern History, Keele University, and author of Fascist Ideology and The Third Rome
‘Weak or failed, mad or murderous, a dictator who was always right or always wrong—the debate on Italy’s Fascist leader continues. Williamson examines both Mussolini’s decision-making processes and his decisions. All those interested in the Italian dictatorship will benefit from his work.’ — Richard Bosworth, Emeritus Fellow, University of Oxford, and author of Mussolini and the Eclipse of Italian Fascism
‘A well-informed and highly up-to-date analysis of one of Europe’s more controversial dictatorships. Duce probes all aspects of the long-lasting regime, asks the right questions and comes up with considered and convincing answers. An excellent and very readable study.’ — Paul Corner, Professor of European History, University of Siena, and author of Mussolini in Myth and Memory
Peter J. Williamson is a former scholar of political science and public policy (1980-91). His previous book Varieties of Corporatism covered Mussolini's corporatist system, and he has retained an interest in Italy's dictator since. He has also worked in the NHS and government at board director level in Scotland (1991-2014).